Winter Warfare: Red Army Orders and Experiences (Soviet (Russian) Study of War)
Based on German and Soviet military archival material, this book provides an insight into the tactics and planning for combat in a winter climate. It also studies the mechanisms for change in an army during the course of battle.
The first part of the book looks at the tactical pamphlet 'People's Commissar for Defence Order No. 109', as passed by Red Army units on 4 March 1941, which provided regulations for combat in Winter. The second part of the book, using material from the Soviet military archives, reveals Red Army General Staff supplements to the winter regulation.
looking for signs of frostbite. All leaders must strictly observe this rule. The rear guard of the column must ensure that people are not left behind. Locations protected from wind must be selected for short rest stops. 191. Make use of routes across rivers and lakes. Routes that traverse rivers and lakes are best utilized under cover of night. When marching during the day, the column must remain dispersed in depth. In case bombs break the ice, troops are to be provided with crossing and recovery
operations on the flank and in the rear, while interacting with troops advancing from the front. With respect to the conduct of battle for populated areas, the following may be noted: 1. In small , weakly fortified populated areas, especially in those cases where they are occupied by a morally depressed enemy (as a result of a retreat for example), it is more advantageous to attack from the march, so as not to give the enemy the opportunity to consolidate. For this purpose, infantry subunits on
general requirements, great attention must be paid to marking the route over the snow cover with stakes. In winter (especially in winds), all tracks are rapidly covered by snow and the terrain changes its appearance. It is necessary to mark all directions by landmarks, and to check 139 THE EXPERIENCES the directions marked with stakes before the attack. Guides must lead their subunits without error to the targets of the attack. The time of an attack in winter depends on the situation;
was structured with consideration for terrain properties and situation. As a rule, defensive lines ran through populated areas, across distinctive heights, groves and forests. Carefully organized reconnaissance and prolonged, widely deployed observation were required to study the system of such a defense. The defense was antitank and anti-infantry, with wide use of corresponding obstacles - mines, wire, antitank ditches, snow banks, etc. Defensive structures were basically of a light type, and
prolonged snowy winter, and who know how to ski. The replacement contingent should be physically strong and hardy, with soldiers being no older than 25 years and commanders up to 30 years old; 167 THE EXPERIENCES 2. Train personnel two months before the snowfall in a general program for training rifle units, with systematic gymnastics exercises in preparation for ski runs (running, jumping, overcoming obstacles, rapid movement across rugged terrain). When snow falls, training should be