United States History: 1500 to 1789: From Colony to Republic (Essentials)
REA’s Essentials provide quick and easy access to critical information in a variety of different fields, ranging from the most basic to the most advanced. As its name implies, these concise, comprehensive study guides summarize the essentials of the field covered. Essentials are helpful when preparing for exams, doing homework and will remain a lasting reference source for students, teachers, and professionals.
United States History: 1500 to 1789 reviews the European age of exploration, the beginnings of colonization, the colonial world, the Enlightenment and the Great Awakening, the French and Indian War, the Intolerable Acts, the War for Independence, the creation of new governments, and the United States Constitution.
(encomiendas) with Indian slaves ruthlessly managed for the benefit of the conquistadores. The encomienda system was later replaced by the similar but somewhat milder hacienda system. As the Indian population died from overwork and European diseases, Spaniards began importing African slaves to supply their labor needs. Society in New Spain was rigidly stratified, with the highest level reserved for natives of Spain (peninsulares) and the next for those of Spanish parentage born in the New World
British merchant marine. John Paul Jones, the most famous of American naval leaders, captured ships and carried out audacious raids along the coast of Britain itself. THE AMERICAN REVOLUTION French and Spanish naval forces also struck against various outposts of the British Empire. 6.9 THE TREATY OF PARIS OF 1783 News of the debacle at Yorktown brought the collapse of Lord North’s ministry, and the new cabinet opened peace negotiations. The extremely able American negotiating team was
one gained a majority in the Electoral College, the President would be chosen by the House of Representatives. The new Constitution was to take effect when nine states, through special state conventions, had ratified it. 7.8 THE STRUGGLE FOR RATIFICATION As the struggle over ratification got under way, those favoring the Constitution astutely took for themselves the name Federalists (i.e., advocates of centralized power) and labeled their opponents Anti-Federalists. The Federalists were
lands for France. THE FRENCH IN THE INTERIOR French exploration and settlement spread through the Great Lakes region and the valleys of the Mississippi and Ohio Rivers. In 1673 Jacques Marquette explored the Mississippi Valley, and in 1682 Sieur de la Salle followed the river to its mouth. French settlements in the Midwest were not generally real towns, but rather forts and trading posts serving the fur trade. Throughout its history, New France was handicapped by an inadequate population and a
control. 3.4 THE HALF-WAY COVENANT By the latter half of the seventeenth century many Puritans were coming to fear that New England was drifting away from its religious purpose. The children and grandchildren of the first generation were displaying more concern for making money than creating a godly society. To deal with this, some clergymen in 1662 proposed the “Half-Way Covenant,” providing a sort of half-way church membership for the children of members, even though those children, having