UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume 8: Africa since 1935
This eighth and final volume of the UNESCO General History of Africa examines the period from 1935 to the present day. As liberation from colonial rule progresses, the political, economic and cultural dimensions of the continent are analysed.
For Africa, 1935 marked the beginning of the Second World War, with Mussolini’s invasion of Ethiopia. International conflict dominates the first section of this volume, which describes crises in the Horn and North Africa, and other regions under the domination of the European powers. The next three sections cover the ensuing Africa-wide struggles for political sovereignty, from 1945 to independence; undervelopment and the fight for economic independence, looking at nation-building and changing political structures and values.
Section five deals with socio-cultural change since 1935, from religion to literature, language to philosophy, science and education. The last two sections address the development of pan-Africanism and the role of independent Africa in world affairs. Acknowledging the original irony that it was the imposition of European imperialism that awakened African consciousness, the volume points up the vital and growing interrelation of Africa and the rest of the globe.
The volume is illustrated with black and white photographs, maps and figures. The text is fully annotated and there is an extensive bibliography.
Americas, as the relevant chapters will reveal. This volume also shows that Africa has played a decisive role in stripping colonialism of its legitimacy under international morality and increasingly under the L a w of Nations. F o r several centuries, rules of European statecraft and diplomatic history had m a d e it perfectly legitimate for a European power to colonize and subjugate a non-Western society. Millions of people in Africa, Asia, and indeed the Americas, fell under European
the inalienability of national sovereignty symbolized by Sultan M o h a m e d V . T h e Residency rejected the demands which were deemed incompatible with the French presence in Morocco and limited itself to implementing, belatedly, those that it felt were minor. T h e formation of the Popular Front government, which was welcomed by the nationalists, m a d e it possible to relaunch the demands through the despatch of a delegation to Paris and resort to mass action. T h e year 1937 was marked by
Grenoble, France © S y k m a , Photo by J. Langevin, Paris, 15.2 Photp by W . Tochtermann, 13.2 (top) © T o p h a m , London, 4.1, 7.2, 9.1, 9.4, 10.1, 13.1, 14.1, 14.2 (bottom), 22.1, 23.1 (top left), 23.3, 24.3 © U N E S C O , Paris, 20.2 and 20.3 (photos by P. Migeat), 30.4 ( M A B / P N U E ) , 30.5 ( M A B ) © U N E S C O , Photo by M . Claude, 29.2 ©United Nations, 10.6 ( U N Photo 146 2 2 1 / T . Zagozdinski), 29.1 (top right, bottom left and bottom right), 29.3 ( U N Photo 157267/J.
whose interests did not always coincide with those of the white farmers. Politically the white settlers had m u c h less influence than they did in Southern Rhodesia and were effectively limited to the line of the railway and to the white farming blocks. T h e y had only a minority vote in executive and legislative councils which were dominated by officials. T h e majority of Africans were administered by British officials, w h o , for instance in the Barotseland Province, followed a policy of
including 18. See E. Lengyel, 1957. 146 North Africa and the Horn tanks and aircraft in return for cotton and rice. This m o v e to free Egypt from a unilateral dependency on Western arsenals was acclaimed by most of the Arab and Asian states but aroused a wave of hysteria in the West and deepened the distrust and aversion to the Egyptian regime headed by al-Nasser. T h e immediate effect of this m o v e was the refusal of Britain, the United States and the World Bank to finance the High D a m