UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume 4: Africa from the Twelfth to the Sixteenth Century
The result of years of work by scholars from all over the world, The UNESCO General History of Africa reflects how the different peoples of Africa view their civilizations and shows the historical relationships between the various parts of the continent. Historical connections with other continents demonstrate Africa's contribution to the development of human civilization. Each volume is lavishly illustrated and contains a comprehensive bibliography.
The period covered in Volume IV constitutes a crucial phase in the continent's history, in which Africa developed its own culture and written records became more common. Major themes include the triumph of Islam; the extension of trading relations,cultural exchanges, and human contacts; and the development of kingdoms and empires.
believers were impervious to speculative thought and accused the Ash'arites of upsetting the beliefs of simple people. T h u s objectively they were serving the interests of the Mälikites, w h o showed a surprising tolerance towards them. In conclusion, Islamic orthodoxy in the Maghrib and Andalusia (alAndalus) in the time of Ibn Tümart was primarily concerned with laying d o w n rules; this left no room for anxiety or mystery. Religion became a matter of forethought, calculation and
HRBEK 5 6 Society in the Maghrib after the disappearance of the Almohads 102 R . IDRIS Mali and the second Mandingo expansion 117 D . T . NIANE 7 T h e decline of the Mali empire 172 M . LY-TALL 8 T h e Songhay from the 12th to the 16th century 187 S. M . CISSOKO 9 10 T h e peoples and kingdoms of the Niger Bend and the Volta basin from the 12th to the 16th century 211 M . IZARD The kingdoms and peoples of Chad 238 D. LANGE v Contents 11 T h e Hausa and their neighbours in the
ties with Africa, are equitably represented a m o n g the authors. W h e n the editor of a volume has approved texts of chapters, they are then sent to all m e m b e r s of the Committee for criticism. In addition, the text of the volume editor is submitted for examination to a Reading Committee, set u p within the International Scientific Committee on the basis of the m e m b e r s ' fields of competence. T h e Reading Committee analyses the chapters from the standpoint of both substance and
Tichit and Takanaka. 17 T h e kingdom of Zara (Diara) took part in the struggles for domination and came into conflict with the Soso, then in full expansion. Soso supremacy This supremacy lasted a very short time, from 1180 to 1230. At the end of the twelfth century the Soso people, under the Kante dynasty, rose against the Muslims. T h e Soso T h e Soso were part of the Malinke group; according to tradition the site of their capital, Soso, was in the region of Kulikoro, in the mountains about
original Muslim African civilization developed around the Muslim trading settlements: the Swahili civilization. It found expression in a language of the same n a m e , which retained the Bantu structure with m a n y Arabic loan-words, and it was to spread all over East Africa from the coast to the great lakes, and thence gradually to the River Congo. T h u s did the influence of Islam m a k e itself felt, directly or indirectly, throughout the region. People have often wanted to k n o w the