UNESCO General History of Africa, Volume 3: Africa from the Seventh to the Eleventh Century
The result of years of work by scholars from all over the world, The UNESCO General History of Africa reflects how the different peoples of Africa view their civilizations and shows the historical relationships between the various parts of the continent. Historical connections with other continents demonstrate Africa's contribution to the development of human civilization. Each volume is lavishly illustrated and contains a comprehensive bibliography.
Tenth-century vase 187 (b) Eleventh-century bowl 7.5 7.6 8.1 8.2 8.3 8.4 8.5 775 187 B ä b al-Nasr 797 Al-DjuyGshî M o s q u e 792 T h e royal building in Old Dongola 207 Portrait of Kyros, the Bishop of Faras (866-902): a mural from Faras Cathedral 203 Glass chalice found in Faras Cathedral 208 Portrait of Marianos, the Bishop of Faras (1005-36): a mural from Faras Cathedral 274 View of the north transept of Faras Cathedral with the great mural of the Nativity, c. 1000 222 9.1
these schools is n o w adhered to in specific geographical areas: the Hanafite school is dominant in those regions that came under the sway of the Turkish dynasties, i.e. Turkey, Syria, Iraq, Central Asia and northern India/Pakistan; the Shâfi'ite madhhab is to be found mostly along the shores of the Indian Ocean, from southern Arabia and East Africa to Indonesia; Mälikism very soon implanted itself in North Africa, Muslim Spain and in the western and central Sudan. T h e last school, the
Muslim clergy and pious m e n from Kayrawän and other Islamic centres. A n d as in other parts of the Islamic world the spread of Islam was more rapid a m o n g the townspeople than in the countryside. Although w e are not able - for lack of sufficient evidence - to answer precisely w h y and h o w various Berber groups (and there were m a n y dozens of them) adopted the religion of Islam, w e can at least discern some general trends characterizing this process in its successive stages. 9. See
peasants were only little touched by Islam. 37 These settlements along the trade routes and in the major centres constituted the nursery for the eventual propagation of Islam. O f course, not every Muslim trader could have had enough time or inclination to do missionary work a m o n g the local people. But in the wake of the traders and with the growth of Muslim communities in m a n y parts of the Sudan came Muslim clerics for w h o m religious activities were generally more important than
divided the expansion of the Bantu from their original h o m e land in West Africa to southern Africa into four phases. These phases were as follows: (i) very rapid migration along the Congo (Zaire) waterways of small groups speaking 'pre-Bantu' languages, from the woodlands of central Cameroon and Ubangi to the woodlands south of the Zairian equatorial forest; (2) the gradual consolidation and settlement of the migrant peoples and their expansion through the southern woodland belt extending from