Transitions and Non-Transitions from Communism: Regime Survival in China, Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam
Since the fall of the Berlin Wall, many scholars have sought to explain the collapse of communism. Yet, more than two decades on, communist regimes continue to rule in a diverse set of countries including China, Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam. In a unique study of fourteen countries, Steven Saxonberg explores the reasons for the survival of some communist regimes while others fell. He also shows why the process of collapse differed among communist-led regimes in Europe, Africa, and Latin America. Based on the analysis of the different processes of collapse that has already taken place, and taking into account the special characteristics of the remaining communist regimes, 'Transitions and Non-Transitions from Communism' discusses the future prospects for the survival of the regimes in China, Cuba, North Korea, and Vietnam.
FSLN. The national heads of the six principal groups are all members of the Sandinista Assembly. It also appears that mid-level mass organization leaders are typically Sandinista cadres . . . Like Sandinista militants serving at higher levels, they are subject to party discipline and expected to represent the party line within the organization.77 Ilja A. Luciak, who sympathizes with the Sandinistas, comments as follows: The Sandinista Front controlled these movements [i.e., the mass
power, however, Gomułka took an increasingly conservative position – especially in the economic sphere, where he took steps to limit the inﬂuence of the worker councils.152 His policies also become increasingly repressive, culminating in the 1968 purge of Jews from all leading positions in society. Although Gomułka did not meet the expectations that he would play the role of a radical reformer, he still enjoyed a reformist image behind which he could hide. Despite an increase in repression,
unless defeated by outside powers (see Table 2.1). However, this chapter develops a theoretical model – based on a regime’s type of legitimization – to explain the reasons for the development of the different regime types. Totalitarian regimes strive to gain full hegemony over society, which makes rebellion nearly impossible. When society wears out and the regimes are no longer able to mobilize the population on a permanent basis, cadres begin demanding routinization and predictability. The
post-totalitarian stage.” In 8 9 Actually, he uses the term “intelligentsia,” but he means it in the same sense as I mean “intellectuals.” See Gella, Development of Class Structure in Eastern Europe: Poland and Her Southern Neighbors (Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989), p. 131. For example, Mark Seldon, “The Social Origins and Limits of the Democratic Movement,” in Roger V. Des Forges, Luo Ning, and Wu Yen-bo, eds., Chinese Democracy and the Crisis of 1989: Chinese and American
the Polish Catholic Church; nor has it acted as an umbrella for other organizations, as the Lutheran Church in East Germany did. In 1993, the Cuban Catholic Church published the pastoral letter “El amor todo lo espera,” criticizing the lack of any civil society in the country. In addition, the letter argued for an economic system based on markets and private property.17 One archbishop distributed leaﬂets demanding religious freedom, and encouraged people not to participate in the rapid-response