The Expeditions: An Early Biography of Muhammad (Library of Arabic Literature)
The Expeditions is one of the oldest biographies of the Prophet Muhammad to survive into the modern era. Its primary author, Ma'mar ibn Rashid (714-770 AD/96-153 AH), was a prominent scholar from Basra in southern Iraq who was revered for his learning in prophetic traditions, Islamic law, and the interpretation of the Qur'an. This fascinating foundational seminal work contains stories handed down by Ma'mar to his most prominent pupil, 'Abd al-Razzaq of Sanaa, relating Muhammad’s early life and prophetic career as well as the adventures and tribulations of his earliest followers during their conquest of the Near East.
Edited from a sole surviving manuscript, the Arabic text offers numerous improved readings over those of previous editions, including detailed notes on the text’s transmission and variants as found in later works. This new translation, which renders the original into readable, modern English for the first time, is accompanied by numerous annotations elucidating the cultural, religious and historical contexts of the events and individuals described within its pages.
The Expeditions represents an important testimony to the earliest Muslims’ memory of the lives of Muhammad and his companions, and is an indispensable text for gaining insight into the historical biography of both the Prophet and the rise of the Islamic empire.
�لب��ل�د ،ع�م�د � او إ�َ�جَ�ل�ى �ك�ل ب و � ي أ أ أ � �ف �ش ة � �ف �ع � ة ن ن خ ��� .ف��� � ن � �ث ّ ن �س��د � ا ف��ه�ا خا و ي� �� ر ج��ه �ع��ل�ى � �ه�ل�ه� .م � ��س��د � او إ� �لي��ه �ي� �م�� �بر�� �ل�ه �ي� ��ل��ٍ �م� � ل ّ أ �ّ � ف�خ أ ف � � �ر� او �ع��لي��ه �ب�ا �ب�ه�� ،ر ج� ت� إ� �ل �ه� ا �م �ر �ت�ه��� ،ق��ا �ل ت�� :م�م ن� � ن� ت�� ؟ ح�تى �ض ي� �ب م م ف� �ق ا �� ا ��ن �ف� �م ن ا ��ل� �أ �ن ا ا �ل� � ة ��� ل�و :ر � عرب� رد � ِم�ي
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their reception initially aural. Such narratives were gathered and preserved by the earliest compilers like precious pearls, worthy of appreciation on the merits of their individual beauty and value alone. Yet, like any collector of pearls is wont to do, these precious pearls of narrative were also arranged to make literary necklaces of sorts, which became the first books. These books could be arranged according to diverse interests: legal and ritual topics (fiqh), the exegesis of the Qurʾan
� ق ت ن أ ف ن ن ذ� ن ��ا ن �� ف � � �ب� �و��س��ي��ا ��� :س��عل��� � �ل��ك إ� � ك�� � ك � ��د � �مر��م� �ون�ا � � �ن���ث�ب ت� م��ًار ��� .ر���س�ل إ� �ى ب ��ي� ري��� � ك� م م أ س�ت � ا �� ف� ن ا �ل� �ل � ن � ف أ � �ذ � ةً ف � �نّ ق خ � �و ن� ك�� � ����خ� ل��و� م��س� �م� � ي� إ� �ل�ى ��ب ي���ض�ت �ه� � ��� ،ع ��ط� �ون�ا �ب�� �ل��ك ر�يه�ن������ .ق��ا �ل� او إ� � �ه�ا ��د د ���ل ت� م �� � ةم � ت نّا � ا ��ن ��ق ض �ف � ت ش ئًا ف� ق ا � أ ف ا ن نّ� �ف � �م
ّٰ ق ف ف ف ق �غ � [ 1ي�] ؛ ��س�ا ���ط��ة �ي� م 2 .ب�خ �ي� ر وا ي��ة ��ير �م�ع���مر �ع��ن ا �ل�ز �هر �ي�؛ م �� :ا ر��سول ا �ل��ل�ه. ح م � م م 124 124 ٢،٨،١٢ ٣،٨،١٢ ٩،١٢ ١،٩،١٢ ٢،٩،١٢ Those Who Emigrated to Abyssinia Maʿmar asked Abū ʿAmr ibn al-ʿAlāʾ, “What does ʿuthān mean?” He remained 12.8.2 silent for a time, then said, “Smoke without flame.” Maʿmar said: al-Zuhrī continued his narration, saying: 12.8.3 I cast lots using