Poverty and the Millennium Development Goals (International Studies in Poverty Research)
As the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), pass their 2015 deadline and the international community begins to discuss the future of UN development policy, Poverty and the Millennium Development Goals brings together leading economists from both the global North and South to provide a much needed critique of the prevailing development agenda. By examining current development efforts, goals and policies, it exposes the structurally flawed and misleading measurements of poverty and hunger on which these efforts have been based, and which have led official sources to routinely underestimate the scale of world poverty even as the global distribution of wealth becomes ever more imbalanced.
Latin American Adjustment: How Much Has Happened?, Washington, DC: Institute for International Economics. World Bank (1997) World Development Report 1997, Washington, DC: World Bank. — (2009) Global Monitoring Report 2009: A Development Emergency, Washington, DC: World Bank. — (2013) ‘The state of the poor: where are the poor and where are they poorest?’, www.worldbank.org/ content/dam/Worldbank/document/ State_of_the_poor_paper_April17.pdf. 3 | TH E VI E W F R O M D E P R I V A T I O N: POVE
development agenda and to guarantee that the vision defined by the UN and its member states reaches the country level and public opinion (UN Secretary-General 2014). Finding a way to connect the SDGs with the broader UN development agenda will guarantee that the SDGs fulfil their purpose ‘to envision a more holistic and integrated agenda for advancing human well-being that is equitable across individuals, populations and generations; and that achieves universal human development while respecting
During the 1980s there was a regressive movement in income distribution, penalizing the poorest 10 per cent. Since 2002, there has been a reversal of the historical trend, i.e. progressive increases; and by the end of 2009, the poorest 10 per cent received just under 0.8 per cent of national income. 1 0.9 0.8 0.7 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 % 0.6 5.4
in social protection. Brazil’s current and future challenges lie beyond the monetary dimension of poverty. They include long-standing demands for good-quality public services, such as better pa e s-s o us a a n d j a n n uz z i | 123 health, improved education services and a more comprehensive and safer public transportation system. Having achieved success in taking 22 million people out of monetarybased extreme poverty (living on less than US$1.25 per day), Brazilian public policies now must
13), UN member countries declared: ‘We are committed to an open, equitable, rule-based, predictable and non-discriminatory multilateral trading and financial system,’ thus incorporating equity as a standard for the international system. When the MDGs were formulated, in theory drawn from the Millennium Declaration, the standard of equity was not carried over and target 8A under MDG8 requires only further development of an ‘open, rule-based, predictable, non-discriminatory trading and financial