Poland under Communism: A Cold War History
This book was the first English-language history of Poland from the Second World War until the fall of Communism. Using a wide range of Polish archives and unpublished sources in Moscow and Washington, Tony Kemp-Welch integrates the Cold War history of diplomacy and inter-state relations with the study of domestic opposition and social movements. His key themes encompass political, social and economic history; the Communist movement and its relations with the Soviet Union; and the broader East-West context with particular attention to US policies. The book concludes with a first-hand account of how Solidarity formed the world's first post-Communist government in 1989 as the Polish people demonstrated what can be achieved by civic courage against apparently insuperable geo-strategic obstacles. This compelling new account will be essential reading for anyone interested in Polish history, the Communist movement and the course of the Cold War.
Social Role of the Man of Knowledge (New York, 1940). AAN 237/XXI (Party History Department)/1. 94 AAN 237/XXI/25. ‘Referat Podsekcji Historii’, Kwartalnik Historyczny 1951 (3/4). 40 Poland under Communism The assault was led by a new team, whose head was Bolesław Bierut. Second in command was Jakub Berman, with the economist Hilary Minc to complete the troika. The link with Moscow was essential to their rule. Through the efforts of the Polish journalist Teresa Toran´ska, we know more about
Greece and Israel. Private channels were used to press the Chinese and North Koreans towards an armistice, eventually declared in July 1953, leading to an end of the Korean War. There were also the first attempts to remedy some of Stalin’s blunders, notably the avoidable split with Yugoslavia. The police chief since 1938, Beria, appears to have been pioneering in this regard. It was alleged in July 1953 that Beria had approached Rankovic´, head of the Yugoslav secret police, for a top secret
direction might have the effect of giving them an easy way out.’ His primary concern was the consequences in the USA – with McCarthyism in full flight – of being seen to conciliate the Soviets. Undeterred, Churchill announced to the House of Commons (11 May) that he sought a ‘conference at the highest level . . . between leading powers without a long delay’. Even the suppression of the East German rising did not seem to Churchill to be sufficient grounds for postponement. In the event, nothing
resistance which would indicate to one and all under Soviet rule that they are not alone and which would demonstrate to the outside world the validity of their opposition’.34 But there were dissenting voices. It did not take the strategic wisdom of Clausewitz to see that stirring up resistance in Eastern Europe might have the opposite effect to the one intended. Incitements to revolt – ‘keeping the pot virtually at boiling point’ – might have the long-term effect of delaying Soviet troop
Poland, the ‘reformers’ decided to approach the Party aktyw with a much more candid account of issues raised by Khrushchev’s speech. 99 100 A. Paczkowski, Po´ł wieku dziejo´w Polski, 1939–1989 (Warsaw, 1995), pp. 298–9. W. Roszkowski, Historia Polski, 1914–1991, enlarged 2nd edn (Warsaw, 1992), pp. 230–1. 4 Flood On Stalin’s good qualities, an entirely sufficient amount was published in his lifetime Khrushchev, 1956 Polish archives have three editions of Khrushchev’s speech. A red