In this penetrating biography, eminent historian Richard Brookhiser presents a vivid portrait of the “Father of the Constitution,” an accomplished yet humble statesman who nourished Americans’ fledgling liberty and vigorously defended the laws that have preserved it to this day.
ratifies Treaty of Ghent with treaty powers shared with president votes on Bank of the U.S. Serurier, Jean Sherman, Roger Sierra Leone The Signing of the Constitution painting (Christy) Slavery bondage–liberty paradox criticized by Franklin diffusion strategy JM’s perspectives P. Henry warns against abolition in wartime slaves counted as three-fifths of a person as small-state, large-state issue vs. free statehood for new states See also Manumission Smith, Robert hired, fired,
intermediaries, and eyes and ears. Beckley filled all three functions. Another man the illustrious patriots turned to was a sometime peer, for he had known Madison at Princeton, though he had since come down in life: he was a journalist. Philip Freneau, a descendant of Huguenot merchants, went to Princeton to study for the ministry. There he met, in addition to Madison, the muse. A second Pope, like that Arabian bird Of which no age can boast but one, may yet Awake the muse by Schuylkill’s
sweep them to victory, all in under three years. The current incarnation of the French Revolution, the Directory, was both milder and more aggressive than its predecessors. It relaxed the rule of the guillotine at home, while sweeping through Germany, Italy, and Austria (one of the new young generals it employed was a Corsican artillerist, Napoleon Bonaparte). Everywhere the Directory was venal—squeezing tribute from foreign countries and bribes for its officers from all who dealt with them. The
opposition is your best friend; it can break ranks, and overreach. Federalists did both. In France the Directory began signaling that it wanted to negotiate with America in earnest; military reversals in Europe had made it more tractable. President Adams announced in February 1799 that he was sending a new mission, which had the effect of splitting his party between Adams loyalists and die-hards who wanted to keep the pressure on France and on Republicans at home. Federalist pressure at home
society, Madison wrote Evans, since the “prejudices” of both races were “probably unalterable.” Whites felt “contempt” for the “peculiar features” of blacks, while blacks had “vindictive recollections” of their slave status. Madison envisioned an immense program to buy and resettle slaves. Assuming 1.5 million slaves, he calculated that $600 million would do the job. That money could be raised by selling several hundred million acres of western land. The whole operation should be a federal