Historical Dictionary of Marxism (Historical Dictionaries of Religions, Philosophies, and Movements Series)
Elliott Johnson, Daniel Gray
The second edition of the Historical Dictionary of Marxism covers of the basics of Karl Marx’s thought, the philosophical contributions of later Marxist theorists, and the extensive real-world political organizations and structures his work inspired—that is, the myriad political parties, organizations, countries, and leaders who subscribed to Marxism as a creed.
This text includes a chronology, an introductory essay, and an extensive bibliography. The dictionary section has over 500 cross-referenced entries on important personalities, both thinkers and doers; political parties and movements; and major communist or ex-communist countries. This book is an excellent access point for students, researchers, and anyone wanting to know more about Marxism.
the GDR saw fit on 9 November to open up the Berlin Wall under the supposition that if the people of the east were given the concession of freedom of travel, the 06-395_02_A-K.qxd 9/19/06 1:45 PM Page 27 BERLINGUER, ENRICO SASSARI • 27 breakup of the country could be averted. The opening of the wall was hastened along with gusto by thousands of jubilant Germans who gathered amid wild celebrations to tear down the wall and all it stood for. While the SED leaders hoped this concession to
AND GRAY HISTORICAL DICTIONARY Marxism, one of the few philosophies that turned into an effective movement, was not so long ago the official ideology (in one form or another) of much of humanity. It was initially promulgated by the Soviet Union, then imposed on Central and Eastern Europe, later emerged in the People’s Republic of China, and gradually spread to other parts of Asia, Africa, and Latin America. Although declining in popularity, the movement still remains in power in several
into the 21st century a gigantic presence in Chinese life, and with a reported 66 million members the largest political party in the world. CHINESE REVOLUTION (1949). Following civil and world war, in 1949 Chairman Mao Zedong’s Chinese Communist Party (CCP) swept into power and proclaimed the beginning of the People’s Republic of China. The route from rule by dynasty to rule by Maoism 06-395_02_A-K.qxd 9/19/06 1:45 PM Page 51 CHINESE REVOLUTION • 51 began long before 1949, chiefly with
Front (EPRDF), who in collaborating with the EPLF contrived to test the WPE’s authority over the country further through 1987 and 1988. Simultaneously, Ethiopia’s command economy was stuttering and on the verge of collapse, and with the Soviet Union, in the throes of Mikhail Gorbachev’s glasnost and perestroika initiatives, refusing aid, Mengistu was forced to appeal to the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund for an urgent financial remedy. 06-395_02_A-K.qxd 100 • 9/19/06 1:45 PM
base, consisting of forces and relations of production, and the superstructure consisting of the legal and political institutions, laws, ideas and culture of society. The economic base conditions or shapes the superstructure, hence making production, economics and technology (or the mode of production) all important in determining the ideas, and the political, legal and social arrangements of society. Marx states that the forces of production develop, essentially as technology develops, and when