America Between the Civil War and the 20th Century: 1865 to 1900
Jeff Wallenfeldt, Britannica Educational Publishing
The newly reunified United States experienced a tenuous peace following the American Civil War. It was a period characterized by great technological advances, but also by increased political, economic, and social polarization. This penetrating look at American history between the Civil War and 20th century includes firsthand accounts that reveal the prevailing ideologies of the time and shed light on significant people and events.
appointments. Cleveland was a firm believer in a civil service based on merit rather than on partisan considerations, but, as the first Democratic president in a quarter of a century, he was under great pressure to replace Republicans in appointive offices with Democrats. He followed a line of compromise. In his first two years he removed the incumbents from about two-thirds of the offices subject to his control, but he scrutinized the qualifications of Democrats recommended for appointment and
a greater zest the comforts of a quiet home. As for me, I feel as if I had no country and no home, but try to make the best of it wherever I am. CHIEF JOSEPH: THE DISILLUSIONED INDIAN (1879) * * * Source: North American Review, April 1879: “An Indian’s Views of Indian Affairs.” During the hot days (July 1878) we received notice that we were to be moved farther away from our own country. We were not asked if we were willing to go. We were ordered to get into the railroad cars. Three
people.” This talk fell like a heavy stone upon my heart. I saw that I could not gain anything by talking to him. Other law chiefs (congressional committee) came to see me and said they would help me to get a healthy country. I did not know who to believe. The white people have too many chiefs. They do not understand each other. They do not all talk alike. The commissioner chief (Mr. Hayt) invited me to go with him and hunt for a better home than we have now. I like the land we found (west of
the Osage reservation) better than any place I have seen in that country; but it is not a healthy land. There are no mountains and rivers. The water is warm. It is not a good country for stock. I do not believe my people can live there. I am afraid they will all die. The Indians who occupy that country are dying off. I promised Chief Hayt to go there, and do the best I could until the government got ready to make good General Miles’s word. I was not satisfied, but I could not help myself. Then
administrative practice, and a steady accretion of precedent in the management of federal affairs, which have broadened the sphere and altered the functions of the government without perceptibly affecting the vocabulary of our constitutional language.… It is said that there is no single or central force in our federal scheme; and so there is not in the federal scheme, but only a balance of powers and a nice adjustment of interactive checks, as all the books say. How is it, however, in the