After Lincoln: How the North Won the Civil War and Lost the Peace
A. J. Langguth
A brilliant evocation of the post-Civil War era by the acclaimed author of Patriots and Union 1812. After Lincoln tells the story of the Reconstruction, which set back black Americans and isolated the South for a century.
With Lincoln’s assassination, his “team of rivals,” in Doris Kearns Goodwin’s phrase, was left adrift. President Andrew Johnson, a former slave owner from Tennessee, was challenged by Northern Congressmen, Radical Republicans led by Thaddeus Stephens and Charles Sumner, who wanted to punish the defeated South. When Johnson’s policies placated the rebels at the expense of the black freed men, radicals in the House impeached him for trying to fire Secretary of War Edwin Stanton. Johnson was saved from removal by one vote in the Senate trial, presided over by Salmon Chase. Even William Seward, Lincoln’s closest ally in his cabinet, seemed to waver.
By the 1868 election, united Republicans nominated Ulysses Grant, Lincoln's winning Union general. The night of his victory, Grant lamented to his wife, “I’m afraid I’m elected.” His attempts to reconcile Southerners with the Union and to quash the rising Ku Klux Klan were undercut by post-war greed and corruption during his two terms.
Reconstruction died unofficially in 1887 when Republican Rutherford Hayes joined with the Democrats in a deal that removed the last federal troops from South Carolina and Louisiana. In 1964, President Lyndon Johnson signed a bill with protections first proposed in 1872 by the Radical Senator from Massachusetts, Charles Sumner.
took pains to assure the world that his protégée was his wife’s friend, not his. But their guest was finding Molly Greeley increasingly demanding and Pickie a neglected and willful child. Traveling to Europe to be Greeley’s foreign correspondent, Margaret Fuller took as her lover a young Italian aristocrat. As they were returning to America, the couple and their infant son were drowned during a storm off the coast of Fire Island. When Pickie died of cholera at the age of seven, his father
of them. Morrison Waite CHAPTER 18 GRANT’S SECOND TERM (1873–1876) ULYSSES GRANT HAD FOUND HIS first term as president less onerous than he feared and expected the second to unroll as smoothly. Before it ended, however, the next four years of peace would test him as harshly as war had done. Grant would learn that a military commander’s steadfast loyalty to his officers became less admired in a civilian president. The travail began the day before Grant’s second inaugural when Ben Butler
that state revert to its natural leaders—even though they were the Confederate rebels, wealthy planters, and former slave owners. Southern Republicans worried that Northerners might soothe their conscience by accepting the same assurances of racial harmony that had lulled Liberals during the last presidential election. Those Republicans knew the South, and they knew better. Alphonso Taft agreed that Southern Republicans had suffered “incredible” wrongs from a Democratic Party that had adopted
Union soldier boarded or by holding a handkerchief to their nostrils when they passed a Yankee on the street. At first, Butler had laughed off the insults. When a group of city matrons ostentatiously turned their backs on him, Butler said loudly to his aides, “Well, these ladies certainly know which end of them looks best.” As the snubs got more aggressive, however, with women spitting or making retching noises, Butler issued what became known as the Woman Order. It concluded: “ . . . When any
Benjamin Wade also tried to strike the word “white” from the section that restored voting rights. Charles Sumner’s was one of the five votes to support him. When the legislation reached the White House in the closing moments of the congressional session, Lincoln turned to a tactic first employed by Andrew Jackson, the pocket veto. When he did not sign the bill, it died. Lincoln explained that since governments in Arkansas and Louisiana had already been installed under his plan, he would not